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Samuel Rodriguez, Andrew Giese, Nancy M. Amato, "Improving Aggregate Behavior in Parking Lots with Appropriate Local Maneuvers," In Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Intel. Rob. Syst. (IROS), Nov 2013.
Proceedings(pdf, abstract)

In this paper we study the ingress and egress of pedestrians and vehicles in a parking lot. We show how local maneuvers executed by agents permit them to create trajectories in constrained environments, and to resolve the deadlocks between them in mixed-flow scenarios. We utilize a roadmap-based approach which allows us to map complex environments and generate heuristic local paths that are feasible for both pedestrians and vehicles. Finally, we examine the effect that some agent-behavioral parameters have on parking lot ingress and egress.