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Guang Song, Nancy M. Amato, "Randomized Motion Planning for Car-like Robots with C-PRM," Technical Report, TR01-002, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, Mar 2001.
Technical Report(ps, pdf, abstract)

In this work, we propose a new approach for motion planning for nonholonomic car-like robots which is based on a Customizable PRM (C-PRM). A major advantage of our approach is that it enables the same roadmap to be efficiently utilized for car-like robots with different turning radii, which need not be known before query time. Our C-PRM-based approach first builds a so-called control roadmap which does not incorporate any nonholonomic constraints. The control roadmap is used to efficiently generate `good' configurations of the car, e.g., aligned with the roadway. The control roadmap is also used to guide the roadmap connection. The paths encoded in the roadmap consist of straight-line segments and arcs, where transitions between the two require full stops of the car. The control roadmap assists in the optimization and smoothing of these paths using cubic B-splines. Results with a simple car-like robot are very promising.